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Descubren transferencia de ADN de humanos a bacterias


La gonorrea adquiere un trozo de ADN humano


Primera prueba de transferencia genética de un anfitrión humano a un patógeno bacteriano que ofrece una nueva visión de la evolución y de la enfermedad.

En términos más científicos, nunca se ha registrado una transferencia directa de ADN de humanos a bacterias.


Neisseria gonorrhoeae



Investigadores de Northwestern Medicine han descubierto las primeras pruebas de un fragmento de ADN humano en un genoma bacteriano – en este caso, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, la bacteria que causa la gonorrea. Posteriores investigaciones demostraron que la transferencia de genes parece ser un evento evolutivo reciente.

El descubrimiento ofrece una visión de la evolución, así como de la hábil capacidad de la gonorrea para adaptarse continuamente y sobrevivir en sus anfitriones humanos. La gonorrea, que se transmite a través del contacto sexual, es una de las enfermedades más antiguas registradas y una de las pocas exclusivas de los humanos.
“Esto tiene una relevancia evolutiva debido a que demuestra que puedes dar grandes pasos evolutivos cuando eres capaz de adquirir esos trozos de ADN”, dice el autor senior del estudio Hank Seifert, profesor de microbiología e inmunología en la Escuela Feinberg de Medicina de la Universidad Northwestern . “Las bacterias logran una secuencia genética del propio anfitrión al que infectan. Esto podría tener amplias implicaciones sobre cómo pueden adaptarse las bacterias a su anfitrión”.


Se sabe que la transferencia de genes tiene lugar entre distintas bacterias e incluso entre bacterias y células de levadura. “Pero el ADN humano hacia una bacteria es un salto muy grande”, dice el autor principal Mark Anderson, becario de posdoctorado en microbiología. “Esta bacteria tuvo que superar varios obstáculos para adquirir esta secuencia de ADN”.

El artículo se publica el 14 de febrero en la revista on-line mBio.

El hallazgo sugiere que la capacidad de la gonorrea para adquirir ADN de su anfitrión humano puede permitirle desarrollar nuevas y distintas cepas de sí misma. “Pero si este evento particular ha proporcionado una ventaja a la bacteria de la gonorrea, aún no lo sabemos”, comenta Seifert.

Cada año unas 700 000 personas de los Estados Unidos y 50 millones en todo el mundo, sufren la gonorrea. Aunque la enfermedad es curable mediante antibióticos, sólo se recomienda un medicamento para su tratamiento, debido a que la enfermedad desarrolló resistencia a la opción anterior de antibiótico a lo largo de las últimas cuatro décadas.


La gonorrea es una enfermedad particularmente seria para las mujeres. Si no se trata, la gonorrea puede derivar en una enfermedad inflamatoria pélvica, unos síntomas de dolor que pueden provocar esterilidad y embarazos ectópicos. En raros casos, hombres y mujeres pueden desarrollar una forma de la enfermedad de abandona el tracto genital y entra en el torrente sanguíneo, provocando artritis y endocarditis, una infección del revestimiento interno del corazón.

Una vieja enfermedad que se parece a la gonorrea es descrita en la Biblia, señala Seifert, que ha estudiado la enfermedad durante más de 28 años. La mayor parte de esta investigación se centra en cómo evita la bacteria el sistema inmune del cuerpo alterando su apariencia y modulando la acción de los glóbulos blancos.

La transferencia de genes se descubrió cuando se determinaron las secuencias genómicas de varias gonorreas clínicas aisladas en el Instituto Broad en Cambridge, Massachusetts. Tres de las 14 aisladas tenían un trozo de ADN donde la secuencia de bases de ADN(A, T, C y G) eran idénticas al elemento de ADN L1 encontrado en los humanos.

El el laboratorio Feinberg de Seifert, Anderson secuenció el fragmento para re-confirmar que, efectivamente, era idéntico al de los humanos. También demostró que esta secuencia está presente en aproximadamente un 11 por ciento de las gonorreas aisladas estudiadas.

Anderson también estudió la bacteria que causa la meningitis, Neisseria meningitidis, y está muy relacionada con la bacteria de la gonorrea a nivel genético. No hubo signos del fragmento humano, lo que sugiere que la transferencia de genes es un evento evolutivo reciente.


Fuente: http://www.cienciakanija.com/2011/02/14/la-gonorrea-adquiere-un-trozo-de-adn-humano/

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